Belarus closing borders. Лукашенко закрывает границу с Украиной, Польшей и Литвой. Он заявил, что делает это вынужденно. / Lukashenka closes the border with Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. He stated that he had to do it.
Belarus closing borders. Лукашенко закрывает границу с Украиной, Польшей и Литвой. Он заявил, что делает это вынужденно. / Lukashenka closes the border with Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. He stated that he had to do it.
Interesting. Did he say why? Is it due to the food or what’s going on with Russia
no just happened 10 minutes ago
. President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko said that Minsk is forced to close the borders with three countries. We are talking about Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania.
For this, according to Lukashenko, Minsk is forced to withdraw troops from the streets. It was decided to “put half the army under arms” and close the state border from the West - from Poland and Lithuania. As for the border with Ukraine, control there will be strengthened.
Also, the Belarusian leader addressed the peoples of these countries at the women’s forum. Lukashenka called on them to stop their politicians and prevent the “war from unleashing”.
Most likely due to the ongoing (((color revolution))).
The Department of Defense ordered 26 A-29s for the AAF from the U.S.-based Sierra Nevada Corporation, SNC, and its partner Brazilian Embraer Defense and Security in a $1.808 billion contract.
The A-29 Super Tocano, that is being used by the AAF as a counter-insurgency aircraft, is easy to fly and maintain. It is also considered one of the cheapest warplanes to operate. Afghan A-29s are armed with Paveway laser-guided bombs, which enable them to carry out pinpoint airstrikes.
自1979年以来來訪台层级最高美国官员副国务卿Keith J. Krach抵台！
Deputy Secretary of State Keith J. Krach, the highest-ranking US official visiting Taiwan since 1979, arrived in Taiwan!
How should the CCP’s Foreign Calling Department respond?
ONCE AGAIN THIS IS HUGE
POTUS abandoning One China Policy
Nixon should have never allowed it in the first place
Let’s keep count
Yesterday during the US Air Force birthday the DoD (SecDef) Mark Esper acknowledged and revealed to the world that China and Russia are using DEW (Direct Energy Weapons)
The United States will sell water mines, cruise missiles and drones at one go
Wait for the Seven Weapon System to be given to Taiwan!
Javelin anti-tank missile (additional purchase)
Towed anti-tank missile (additional purchase)
HIMARS rocket system
Four. M-109A6 self-propelled gun
Wu. Lu Shot Harpoon
Six. MQ-9 drone
Seven. Smart Mine
HQ-22 and HQ9 Missiles positioned around Indian Chinese Border and all around the South China Sea
- Deputy Secretary of State Keith J. Krach, the highest-ranking US official visiting Taiwan since 1979, arrived in Taiwan!
so, what Branch will do you want to be drafted into boys and girls?
come on, play along, Imagine how pissed off Beijing, is right now.
Azazel News #Recap 9/16/2020
Young Charcuterie: “Interesting air traffic over DC tonight av geeks: - US Park Police helo (very common, but not usually at 0100), orbiting White House - E-6B Mercury TACAMO, using callsign HONDA86 flying over lots of eastern US and crossing over DC.” Aleph א: “The Above EAM is for USN E-6B Mercury With the CS “ROTA91” and hex of AE0414 which is outbound Patuxent River.” BlueSky: “USAF WC-135W CONSTANT PHOENIX 61-2667 OLIVE55 FROM: RAF MILDENHALL TO: FARO HEADING SOUTH OVER UK 10:15Z. USAF WC-135W CONSTANT PHOENIX 61-2667 OLIVE55 AIRBORNE FROM RAF MILDENHALL 10:05Z.” Swiss Military Radar: “United States Air Force Boeing WC-135W (61-2667, #AE0941) as flight #OLIVE55 at 35000 ft heading south bound OTT Arronnes, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (France).” DTY VirtualRadar: “Callsign: #OLIVE55 Boeing WC-135W of United States Air Force Reg: #61-2667 | Alt: 29868ft | Squawk: 7502 | Icao: #AE0941 | 4” Zaes: “US Air Force WC-135 Constant Phoenix OLIVE55 Nuke sniffer over the Mediterranean Sea.” [Why would an American Nuclear Sniffer be flying over Lebanon and Israel? So let’s recap: You have an American Atmospheric (Nuclear Sniffer) flying around Israel and Lebanon in the air right now as we speak. We have a devastating explosion which happened in Lebanon over a month ago and was blamed on Ammonium Nitrate. We have reports from Italy of radiation sensors going off at the time of the explosion which was scrubbed from the Internet. “RADIATION Levels Spike 10X in Mediterranean After Massive Beirut Blast. Radiation levels suddenly spiked more than TEN TIMES HIGHER in areas of the Mediterranean Sea.” Hal Turner show only one left reporting the radiation spike. Found two operational Constant Phoenix 61-2667 (last seen in-flight over Jordan) and 62-3582 (last seen at Offutt AFB, NE). Offutt AFB, which has a street with special name… Looking Glass Ave. So the Sniffer over Israel/ Lebanon has just gone dark.]
Arda Mevlutoglu: “A typical Pantsir S1 battery is composed of six launcher vehicles, albeit being able to operate independently. This thing is equipped with enough firepower to take out two entire Pantsir S1 batteries, sparing command and control vehicles (to let them report back the havoc).”
Evergreen Intel: “Something else to piss China off… USTRANSCOM CMB flight out of Inchon IAP, South Korea currently overflying the entirety of Taiwan. CMB0430 is an MD-11F reg. N545JN, ICAO A6EB54, of Western Global Airlines. And yes… it’s “that one.”
Soros: “The Trump Administration will disappear in 2020 or even sooner.”
Zero Hedge: “Yes, 2021 Could Be Worse.” “I notice lots of folks on social media pining for 2021. Don’t kill the messenger, but 2021 could be much worse than 2020…”
Astronomers discover a 2-km asteroid orbiting closer to the sun than Venus. Astronomers have painstakingly built models of the asteroid population, and those models predict that there will be ~1 km-sized asteroids that orbit closer to the sun than Venus does.
Three HUGE asteroids headed towards Earth, after amateur astronomer spots massive space rock our planetary defenses missed. Scientists are getting better at spotting inbound, “potentially hazardous” asteroids, with three more measuring over 15 meters in diameter on the way this week.
Japanese Defense Ministry unveils protocol for encountering UFOs. Defense chief Taro Kono asked the SDF to record any such objects that they encounter or that enter Japanese airspace and to take steps to analyze them.
SpaceX wants to test its Starlink satellite internet network with boats it uses to land rockets. SpaceX plans to further expand Starlink internet testing, wanting to begin demonstrations using its ocean-going fleet of vessels.
Four people were killed in the crash of a Philippine Air Force Sikorsky AUH-76 (S-76) helicopter at a rubber plantation in Lanthavan, Basilan province.
Mage, Brazil, Update w/Remote Viewer “Buddy” Bolton, Migratory Bird Deaths, Q&A, Linda Moulton Howe, Earth Files. [Remember us in real time covering and translating the Mage, Brazil, UFO crash in which the kids encountered the Space Force? Look who is finally covering it. Since the crash we have lost 15 fighter jets.]
WHO now says your child’s presence in school counts as ‘informed consent’ for vaccination - parental presence 'not required’. The WHO has labeled it 'implied consent.’ The World Health Organization, which is the medical epicenter of the depopulation lobby, now considers your child’s presence in school informed consent to vaccinate that child. Depopulation by vaccination us now fully outside the law and will sterilize, sicken and dumb down every child on earth but the children of the depopulation lobby members who don’t vaccinate their children.
Facebook staffer sends ‘blood on my hands’ memo. Ex-data scientist writes internal memo outlining scale of problems facing social network.
Zero Hedge: “Rabobank: Is It Totally Crazy To Ask If Social Media Is Trying To Influence The Electorate “No, that is clearly unthinkable. We have truly efficient media. In the same way we have efficient markets, stewarded by central banks.”
Twitter suspends virologist after she publishes paper alleging that COVID-19 was created in Wuhan lab. Dr. Yan escaped danger and censorship in China, only to end up censored on Twitter when she arrived in America. Tucker Carlson Tonight: Chinese Whistleblower. “This virus was made in a lab and I can prove it.” Update: Facebook is trying its best to censor this video.
Abstract of Li-Meng Yan’s report: Unusual features of the SARS-CoV-2 genome suggesting sophisticated laboratory modification rather than natural evolution and delineation of its probable synthetic route. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has led to over 910,000 deaths worldwide and unprecedented decimation of the global economy. Despite its tremendous impact, the origin of SARS-CoV-2 has remained mysterious and controversial. The natural origin theory, although widely accepted, lacks substantial support. The alternative theory that the virus may have come from a research laboratory is, however, strictly censored on peer-reviewed scientific journals. Nonetheless, SARS-CoV-2 shows biological characteristics that are inconsistent with a naturally occurring, zoonotic virus. In this report, we describe the genomic, structural, medical, and literature evidence, which, when considered together, strongly contradicts the natural origin theory. The evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 should be a laboratory product created by using bat coronaviruses ZC45 and/or ZXC21 as a template and/or backbone. Building upon the evidence, we further postulate a synthetic route for SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating that the laboratory-creation of this coronavirus is convenient and can be accomplished in approximately six months. Our work emphasizes the need for an independent investigation into the relevant research laboratories. It also argues for a critical look into certain recently published data, which, albeit problematic, was used to support and claim a natural origin of SARS-CoV-2. From a public health perspective, these actions are necessary as knowledge of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and of how the virus entered the human population are of pivotal importance in the fundamental control of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as in preventing similar, future pandemics.
Coincidence? Thousands of Twitter accounts have come up with the same message: “Anti-vaccine rhetoric is dangerous and unscientific. Vaccination hesitation and refusal of public health treatment, and any attack on lawmakers and others is unacceptable.” [Seriously sloppy as fuck. This is so sloppy reminds me of the Call/tweets for Riots to Rodeo Drive and Mall of America (what’s in the basement.)]
Chinese Media Translations: Justice Department announced an indictment against China’s cyber intrusion activities, 5 people invaded more than 100 companies around the world, 2 Malaysians also participated. Vice Minister of Justice Rosen said: Ideally, we should be grateful for the cooperation of the Chinese government, but the CCP has chosen not to cooperate. Why? Because these criminals work for the CCP. PS Has the RICO bill on the CCP started?
The US State Department announced on September 16 that the Deputy Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy and Environmental Affairs Keith Krach will visit Taiwan this Saturday to attend the farewell ceremony of former Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui. The United States commends President Lee Teng-hui’s continuous efforts to strengthen US-Taiwan relations and the vitality of his democratic spirit that runs through common political and economic values. Krach’s visit to Taiwan will set the highest level of current visits to Taiwan by the US State Department since 1979. [This is huge. America is basically saying fuck the One China policy.]
Deputy Secretary of State Keith J. Krach, the highest-ranking US official visiting Taiwan since 1979, arrived in Taiwan! How should the CCP’s Foreign Calling Department respond? [ONCE AGAIN THIS IS HUGE. POTUS abandoning One China Policy.
Reuters reports the United States will sell water mines, cruise missiles and drones at one go. Wait for the Seven Weapon System to be given to Taiwan!
Javelin anti-tank missile (additional purchase)
Towed anti-tank missile (additional purchase)
HIMARS rocket system
M-109A6 self-propelled gun
Lu Shot Harpoon
Marines simulated a takedown of a hostile ship in the South China Sea in a ‘flex’ at China.
Zulfiqar’s forces posted a video of their missile attack on Baghdad’s green zone on Monday night, claiming the attack was for the sake of the martyrs Soleimani and al-Muhandis. That night, the US C-Ram air defense system, for the first time since its deployment, intercepted several missiles fired towards the US Embassy in Baghdad.
Tehran Times: “Rouhani congratulates Iranians on U.S.’s upcoming defeat. President Hassan Rouhani has congratulated the Iranian people on the upcoming defeat of the United States to rigger the so-called snapback sanctions against the Islamic Republic.” [Looks like the Iranians are counting on that Asteroid.]
The Department of Defense ordered 26 A-29s for the AAF from the U.S.-based Sierra Nevada Corporation, SNC, and its partner Brazilian Embraer Defense and Security in a $1.808 billion contract. The A-29 Super Tocano, that is being used by the AAF as a counter-insurgency aircraft, is easy to fly and maintain. It is also considered one of the cheapest warplanes to operate. Afghan A-29s are armed with Paveway laser-guided bombs, which enable them to carry out pinpoint airstrikes.
How obscure satellites detected an Iranian missile attack and saved American lives. When the Space-Based Infrared System spotted ballistic missiles, U.S. troops had time to take cover.
Russian military channels are reporting, "Not a very good signal to the Russian Navy (and the PLA Navy) - the US Navy returned UGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles to nuclear submarines.”
Greece is upgrading its S-300’s air defense systems with the help of Russia. According to the Greek sources, Athens and Moscow are negotiating for the upgrade of the Greek S-300PMU-1 long range Surface to Air Missile (SAM) system to the PMU-2 level. [Their S-300 units are barely about 27% readiness. By its 25, you cannot shoot a missile. It’s more of a repair work not just upgrade. Radar gets a little better and range extends to 195km.]
About two thousand Israeli Hasidim have accumulated on the Belarusian-Ukrainian border. They are trying to get to Ukrainian city of Uman for the traditional celebration of the Jewish New Year — Rosh Hashanah, at the grave of Tzaddik Nachman where Hasidim traditionally celebrate Rosh Hashanah. But air traffic between Israel and Ukraine is closed due to coronavirus. Someone started a rumor that Belarus is letting everyone through. But the life hack did not work, and as a result, a traffic jam formed at the border. [New Year - Rosh Hashanah - begins on Friday evening. The Hasidim have less and less time that to get to Uman.]
President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko said that Minsk is forced to close the borders with three countries. We are talking about Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. For this, according to Lukashenko, Minsk is forced to withdraw troops from the streets. It was decided to “put half the army under arms” and close the state border from the West - from Poland and Lithuania. As for the border with Ukraine, control there will be strengthened. Also, the Belarusian leader addressed the peoples of these countries at the women’s forum. Lukashenka called on them to stop their politicians and prevent the “war from unleashing”.
Dave Oneegs on Instagram: “I don’t condone belligerent behaviour, but when you oppress the people, it’s only a matter of time until they start pushing back.” [Australia is going to have a full on revolt/rebellion and the guy is right.]
From NASA To Amtrak, these are all the government agencies with tactical teams. A recent review of federal law enforcement tactical teams explores various units spread across 18 different government agencies.
HHS head spokesperson Michael Caputo tells Americans to “buy ammunition” before election, warns that anti-Trump lunatics will launch an armed insurrection against America. While streaming on Facebook Live the other day, Michael Caputo, the Trump-appointed head spokesperson of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), told Americans that they should probably stock up on ammunition before the November election because things are about to get crazy.
Federal officials stockpiled munitions, sought ‘heat ray’ device before clearing Lafayette Square, whistleblower says.
Barr tells prosecutors to consider charging violent protesters with sedition. Attorney General William Barr told the nation’s federal prosecutors to be aggressive when charging violent demonstrators with crimes, including potentially prosecuting them for plotting to overthrow the U.S. government.
What Really Happens After Societal Collapse: Dog Eat Dog, or Lions and Lambs Lying Together? Pop culture tells us that societal collapse will lead to every man fighting for himself, but some research suggests that it’s human nature to work together. “I get a little bit annoyed by the constant ‘hell is other people’ themes of US post-apocalyptic movies, because it’s pretty well known what happens when society collapses, and it’s not dog-eat-dog every-man-for-himself, it’s society-rebuilding. Pretty much instantly,” the commenter wrote. “We know this because society has collapsed thousands of times, on smaller and bigger scales. What always happens is that the survivors regroup, organize, and rebuild.” Disaster diplomacy investigates how and why disaster-related activities do and do not induce cooperation amongst enemies. Scholar Ilan Kelman runs a site called Disaster Diplomacy that collects case studies, trying to determine why some disasters lead to greater cooperation between groups and others don’t. In one post, Kelman explains how the United States and Cuba negotiated (mostly failed) offers of mutual aid after hurricanes throughout the 2000s. “Disaster-related activities can catalyze diplomacy, but are unlikely to create diplomacy” where none existed before, Kelman wrote. If two parties—countries, or groups inside countries—have been talking about extending mutual aid and friendship already, help is likely forthcoming.
If they haven’t—according to the case studies Kelman and others have gathered—it might not be. During a big and ongoing collapse, like the one climate change (or an international pandemic) is likely to be, people’s actions will be increasingly difficult to predict, because so many countries will be involved.
Construction worker finds brain wrapped in aluminum foil with flowers and Chinese money washed up on shore of a Wisconsin beach. Jimmy Senda, 47, made the horrifying discovery as he walked along the shore of Lake Michigan, near to Samuel Myers Park on Tuesday morning. Senda, who is a part-time artist, says he regularly combs beaches in the area in search of interesting items such as sea glass to incorporate into his sculptures. He said he was intrigued when he spotted a package, wrapped in aluminum foil and fastened by a pink rubber band, close to the water . Inside he found a small brain that he at first mistook for a chicken breast. Also wrapped up inside the bizarre package were flowers and what appeared to be Chinese currency, he said. Cops have since said they don’t believe the brain is human, but are awaiting official confirmation from the Racine County Medical Examiner’s Office. Early signs in the investigation suggest it could be a cat brain. Some theorized the brain may have been used in some form of sacrificial worship.
Study: 29 million American adults don’t have enough to eat. That’s nearly a threefold increase since 2018—and a crisis that disproportionately impacts people of color, women, and children.
Brooklyn Museum to sell 12 works as pandemic changes the rules. Museums selling their art has long been frowned upon, but recent financial pressures have sent works to the auction block at Christie’s. The proceeds would pay for the care of the collection.
High School Football Players Suspended for Flying Flag Honoring 9/11 First Responders. Players ignored warning they could not fly Thin Blue Line & Thin Red Line flags
U.S. abruptly lifts tariffs on Canadian aluminum. The office of the U.S. Trade Representative says it will lift the tariffs retroactive to Sept. 1 because it expects Canadian exports to “normalize” over the remainder of the year. The United States has suddenly called a tariff truce with Canada, lifting its 10 percent aluminum levy Tuesday just hours before Ottawa was to unleash a suite of countermeasures.
USAF to Reactivate 495th Fighter Squadron as F-35 Unit. USAF will reactivate its 495th Fighter Squadron to support the F-35 mission at RAF Lakenheath, a 48th FW spokesperson confirmed to Air Force Magazine.
The USS Montana submarine (SSN 794) was baptized at the Newport News shipyard in Virginia. It is another Virginia type unit built by Huntington Ingalls Industries for the United States Navy (US Navy). Due to the epidemiological threat resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic, the baptism ceremony took place virtually. The godmother of the submarine USS Montana (SSN 794) was Sally Jewell, who in 2013-2017 served as the US Secretary for Internal Resources. Work on the vessel began in April 2015. Currently, the construction of the ship has been completed in about 85 percent. USS Montana (SSN 794) is to be delivered to the US Navy in 2021. It is the third of ten Virginia submarines built in the 4th tranche. Virginia-class ships can operate in the coastal zone as well as in deep waters. They can be used in actions against other submarines and surface ships. Thanks to the ability to carry cruise missiles, they are able to attack ground targets. They can also be used with the support of special missions, thanks to the possibility of transporting special units. Virginia-class submarines are armed with twelve AGM-84 / RGM-84 / UGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship maneuvering missiles or the same number of long-range Tomahawk maneuvering missiles, fired from two six-lead VPM modules. In addition, they are Mark 48 torpedoes fired from four tubes. The driving unit is the S9G Next Generation Reactor - nuclear pressurized water reactors. The ships reach a speed of 25 knots and can operate at depths of up to 800 m. The crew of the units consists of 134 seamen and officers.
A bipartisan group of House lawmakers unveiled a stimulus plan to send a 2nd round of $1,200 direct payments and reinstate federal unemployment benefits. The coronavirus relief plan is aimed at breaking a stalemate between the White House and top Democrats, but it faces long odds of becoming law.
When you browse Instagram and find former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s passport number. Do not get arrested challenge 2020. [This was a great read. Good reminder of opsec and knowing what things are “secrets” even when not treated like them.]
Smoke from the west coast wildfires has blanketed most of the USA. Man Who Started Wildfire With Molotov Cocktail Released From Jail, Then Starts 6 More. 45-year-old Domingo Lopez Jr. was first arrested for starting wildfires.
The city of Seattle has entered into a contract with Andre Taylor, a high-profile civic activist who will become the city’s first “Street Czar,” a role that has come under fire from some in the community. Under the terms of the year-long contract, the city will pay Taylor and his group, called Not This Time, $150,000 to provide "expertise and support services in de-escalation, community engagement, and alternatives to policing.” The city’s contract was first reported by Publicola. “Me, as a black man has the right to be paid for my genius or for whatever my organization can provide,” Taylor said. “Black people as a whole have not been in a place to be compensated for their genius or their work for a very very long time.” [I’m sorry but that just feels like payouts (hush money) to warlords. It’s like we are in October 2001 and we are making payouts to the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan again.]
Over 500,000 without power along Gulf Coast from Hurricane Sally. Easy to see which counties were hit the hardest by the storm. Massive damage in Orange Beach, AL, after Hurricane Sally.
Wired: “There’s no better time to be an amateur radio geek. Once considered a nerdy basement hobby, lo-fi transmissions from ordinary folks save lives during wildfires, hurricanes, and other climate disasters.”
US Air Force adds electronic warfare to new intel, cyber office. The Air Force is pulling electromagnetic spectrum operations under its deputy chief of staff for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and cyber effects operations. [Congrats on the Air Force expanding the Old Crow’s capabilities.]
US Army wants to upgrade some aging radios. The Army tactical radio team seeks a new radio solution or upgrades for some of its SINCGARS fleet.
DOD states that Russia and China have weaponized their satellites with directed energy weapons. Mark Esper, United States Secretary of Defense, gives an address. Six types of orbital threats exist: high-powered microwaves, radio frequency jammers, laser, chemical sprayers, kinetic kill vehicles, and robot mechanisms. [Now that The Pentagon confirmed Direct Energy Weapons are you beginning to understand what’s going on? This will be a fight to the finish. Keep track of how much disclosure is happening, from batteries to small reactors to new planes.]
Scientific American: “First U.S. small nuclear reactor design is approved. Concerns about costs and safety remain, however.” [LOL GUYS SERIOUSLY SLOW DOWN IN THE DISCLOSURE YOU ARE MAKING THIS TOO HILARIOUS FOR ME. These Small Nuclear Reactors have been in existence since the 50s Off-World. Your kids are being trained on how to handle them. So this is no accident. This is Off-World training done indirectly.]
Note: A tribute to this legend. Colonel Joseph William Kittinger II (born July 27, 1928) is a retired officer in the United States Air Force (USAF) and a Command Pilot. His initial operational assignment was in fighter aircraft, then he participated in Project Manhigh and Project Excelsior high altitude balloon flight projects from 1956 to 1960, setting a world record for the highest skydive from a height greater than 19 miles (31 km). He was also the first man to make a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in a gas balloon, and the first man to fully witness the curvature of the earth. Kittinger served as a fighter pilot during the Vietnam War, and he achieved an aerial kill of a North Vietnamese MiG-21 jet fighter and was later shot down himself, spending 11 months as a prisoner of war in a North Vietnamese prison. He participated in the Red Bull Stratos project as capsule communicator in 2012 at age 84, directing Felix Baumgartner on his record-breaking 24-mile (39 km) freefall from Earth’s stratosphere. On August 16, 1960, Joe Kittinger lifted off from Earth in a helium balloon called Excelsior III (experimenting the effects of high altitude on the human body and rose to a height of 102,800 feet (31,300 m). Colonel Kittinger is a pioneer in space diving. Similar to skydiving, space diving is the act of jumping from an aircraft or spacecraft in near space and falling to Earth. The Kármán line is the internationally accepted definition as to where space begins, 100 km (62 mi) above sea level. This definition is accepted by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), which is an international standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. The United States Air Force uses 50 mi (80 km) to award astronaut wings. No successful space dives (above 100 km) have been completed to date. In 1959 Joseph Kittinger accomplished a jump from 74,700 feet (22.8 km); he then set a long-standing record in 1960 when he jumped from 102,800 feet (31.3 km). In 1962 Yevgeni Andreyev jumped from 83,523 feet (25.458 km) and set a new longest-distance free fall record that was surpassed by Felix Baumgartner who made three jumps in 2012 from 71,581 feet (21.818 km), 96,640 feet (29.46 km), and 128,000 feet (39 km), respectively. Alan Eustace set the current world record for highest and longest-distance free fall jump in 2014 when he jumped from 135,908 feet (41.425 km). However, Joseph Kittinger still holds the record for longest-duration free fall, at 4 minutes and 36 seconds, which he accomplished during his 1960 jump from 102,800 feet (31.3 km).
Higher jumps from the mesosphere or thermosphere have yet to be successfully performed, though Orbital Outfitters, now defunct, was working to create a suit that would have enabled safe space diving. Space diving from beyond the stratosphere was first imagined in 1934, appearing in E. E. “Doc” Smith’s science fiction novel Triplanetary. The classification for someone like Colonel is not Wizard but Maverick: pilots with an ample understanding of science, who volunteer as test subjects. He was a pilot and brass. Commendable in his service but not a Wizard. The same like the Moon Walkers. They are pilots. We have Mavericks now - those guys pilot the new tech, and they risk their lives testing. Very different from piloting on a WC135 or B52 that are operational. Maverick: an unorthodox or independent-minded person.
Catalog of Earth Satellite Orbits.
Different orbits give satellites different vantage points for viewing Earth. This fact sheet describes the common Earth satellite orbits and some of the challenges of maintaining them. The higher a satellite’s orbit, the slower it moves. Certain orbital altitudes have special properties, like a geosynchronous orbit, in which a satellite travels around the Earth exactly once each day. The length of each red arrow in this diagram represents the distance traveled by a satellite in an hour. The eccentricity (e) of an orbit indicates the deviation of the orbit from a perfect circle. A circular orbit has an eccentricity of 0, while a highly eccentric orbit is closer to (but always less than) 1. A satellite in an eccentric orbit moves around one of the ellipse’s focal points, not the center. (NASA illustration by Robert Simmon.) Orbital inclination is the angle between the plane of an orbit and the equator. An orbital inclination of 0° is directly above the equator, 90° crosses right above the pole, and 180° orbits above the equator in the opposite direction of Earth’s spin. (NASA illustration by Robert Simmon.)
•Galactocentric orbit: An orbit about the center of a galaxy. The Sun follows this type of orbit about the galactic center of the Milky Way.
•Heliocentric orbit: An orbit around the Sun. In the Solar System, all planets, comets, and asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris. Moons by contrast are not in a heliocentric orbit but rather orbit their parent object.
•Geocentric orbit: An orbit around the planet Earth, such as that of the Moon or of artificial satellites.
•Lunar orbit (also selenocentric orbit): An orbit around Earth’s Moon.
•Areocentric orbit: An orbit around the planet Mars, such as that of its moons or artificial satellites.
For orbits centered about planets other than Earth and Mars, the orbit names incorporating Greek terminology is less commonly used
•Mercury orbit (Hermocentric or hermiocentric): An orbit around the planet Mercury.
•Venus orbit (Aphrodiocentric or cytheriocentric): An orbit around the planet Venus.
•Jupiter orbit (Jovicentric or zenocentric): An orbit around the planet Jupiter.
•Saturn orbit (Kronocentric or saturnocentric): An orbit around the planet Saturn.
•Uranus orbit (Oranocentric): An orbit around the planet Uranus.
•Neptune orbit (Poseidocentric): An orbit around the planet Neptune.
Altitude classifications for geocentric orbits:
•Low Earth orbit (LEO): geocentric orbits with altitudes below 2,000 km (100–1,240 miles).
•Medium Earth orbit (MEO): geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 2,000 km (1,240 miles) to just below geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi). Also known as an intermediate circular orbit. These are “most commonly at 20,200 kilometers (12,600 mi), or 20,650 kilometers (12,830 mi), with an orbital period of 12 hours.”
•Geosynchronous orbit (GSO) and geostationary orbit (GEO) are orbits around Earth matching Earth’s sidereal rotation period. Although terms are often used interchangeably, technically a geosynchronous orbit matches the Earth’s rotational period, but the definition does not require it to have zero orbital inclination to the equator, and thus is not stationary above a given point on the equator, but may oscillate north and south during the course of a day. Thus, a geostationary orbit is defined as a geosynchronous orbit at zero inclination. Geosynchronous (and geostationary) orbits have a semi-major axis of 42,164 km (26,199 mi). This works out to an altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Both complete one full orbit of Earth per sidereal day (relative to the stars, not the Sun).
•High Earth orbit: geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,240 miles).
•Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not 0.
•Polar orbit: An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution.
Therefore, it has an inclination of (or very close to) either 90 degrees or −90 degrees.
•Polar Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO): A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local solar time on every pass. Useful for image-taking satellites because shadows will be the same on every pass.
•Non-inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination is equal to zero with respect to some plane of reference.
•Ecliptic orbit: A non-inclined orbit with respect to the ecliptic.
•Equatorial orbit: A non-inclined orbit with respect to the equator.
•Near equatorial orbit: An orbit whose inclination with respect to the equatorial plane is nearly zero. This orbit allows for rapid revisit times (for a single orbiting spacecraft) of near equatorial ground sites.
•Prograde orbit: An orbit that is in the same direction as the rotation of the primary (i.e. east on Earth). By convention, the inclination of a prograde orbit is specified as an angle less than 90°.
•Retrograde orbit: An orbit counter to the direction of rotation of the primary. By convention, retrograde orbits are specified with an inclination angle of more than 90°. Apart from those in Sun-synchronous orbit, few satellites are launched into retrograde orbit on Earth because the quantity of fuel required to launch them is greater than for a prograde orbit. This is because when the rocket starts out on the ground, it already has an eastward component of velocity equal to the rotational velocity of the planet at its launch latitude.
There are two types of orbits: closed (periodic) orbits, and open (escape) orbits. Circular and elliptical orbits are closed. Parabolic and hyperbolic orbits are open. Radial orbits can be either open or closed.
•Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle.
•Elliptic orbit: An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse.
•Geostationary or geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO): An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a low Earth orbit (LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geostationary orbit.
•Hohmann transfer orbit: An orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. This maneuver was named after Walter Hohmann.
•Ballistic capture orbit: a lower-energy orbit than a Hohmann transfer orbit, a spacecraft moving at a lower orbital velocity than the target celestial body is inserted into a similar orbit, allowing the planet or moon to move toward it and gravitationally snag it into orbit around the celestial body.
•Coelliptic orbit: A relative reference for two spacecraft—or more generally, satellites—in orbit in the same plane. "Coelliptic orbits can be defined as two orbits that are coplanar and confocal. A property of coelliptic orbits is that the difference in magnitude between aligned radius vectors is nearly the same, regardless of where within the orbits they are positioned. For this and other reasons, coelliptic orbits are useful in [spacecraft] rendezvous”.
•Parabolic orbit: An orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. Such an orbit also has a velocity equal to the escape velocity and therefore will escape the gravitational pull of the planet. If the speed of a parabolic orbit is increased it will become a hyperbolic orbit.
•Escape orbit: A parabolic orbit where the object has escape velocity and is moving directly away from the planet.
•Capture orbit: A parabolic orbit where the object has escape velocity and is moving directly toward the planet.
•Hyperbolic orbit: An orbit with the eccentricity greater than 1. Such an orbit also has a velocity in excess of the escape velocity and as such, will escape the gravitational pull of the planet and continue to travel infinitely until it is acted upon by another body with sufficient gravitational force.
•Radial orbit: An orbit with zero angular momentum and eccentricity equal to 1. The two objects move directly towards or away from each other in a straight-line.
•Radial elliptic orbit: A closed elliptic orbit where the object is moving at less than the escape velocity. This is an elliptic orbit with semi-minor axis = 0 and eccentricity = 1. Although the eccentricity is 1, this is not a parabolic orbit.
•Radial parabolic orbit: An open parabolic orbit where the object is moving at the escape velocity.
•Radial hyperbolic orbit: An open hyperbolic orbit where the object is moving at greater than the escape velocity. This is a hyperbolic orbit with semi-minor axis = 0 and eccentricity = 1. Although the eccentricity is 1, this is not a parabolic orbit.
•Synchronous orbit: An orbit whose period is a rational multiple of the average rotational period of the body being orbited and in the same direction of rotation as that body. This means the track of the satellite, as seen from the central body, will repeat exactly after a fixed number of orbits. In practice, only 1:1 ratio (geosynchronous) and 1:2 ratios (semi-synchronous) are common.
•Geosynchronous orbit (GSO): An orbit around the Earth with a period equal to one sidereal day, which is Earth’s average rotational period of 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.091 seconds. For a nearly circular orbit, this implies an altitude of approximately 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi). The orbit’s inclination and eccentricity may not necessarily be zero. If both the inclination and eccentricity are zero, then the satellite will appear stationary from the ground. If not, then each day the satellite traces out an analemma (i.e. a “figure-eight”) in the sky, as seen from the ground. When the orbit is circular and the rotational period has zero inclination, the orbit is considered to also be geostationary. Also known as a Clarke orbit after the writer Arthur C. Clarke.
•Geostationary orbit (GEO): A circular geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of zero. To an observer on the ground this satellite appears as a fixed point in the sky. “All geostationary orbits must be geosynchronous, but not all geosynchronous orbits are geostationary.”
•Tundra orbit: A synchronous but highly elliptic orbit with significant inclination (typically close to 63.4°) and orbital period of one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes for the Earth). Such a satellite spends most of its time over a designated area of the planet. The particular inclination keeps the perigee shift small.
•Areosynchronous orbit (ASO): A synchronous orbit around the planet Mars with an orbital period equal in length to Mars’ sidereal day, 24.6229 hours.
•Areostationary orbit (AEO): A circular areosynchronous orbit on the equatorial plane and about 17,000 km (10,557 miles) above the surface of Mars. To an observer on Mars this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky.
•Subsynchronous orbit: A drift orbit close below GSO/GEO.
•Semi-synchronous orbit: An orbit with an orbital period equal to half of the average rotational period of the body being orbited and in the same direction of rotation as that body. For Earth this means a period of just under 12 hours at an altitude of approximately 20,200 km (12,544.2 miles) if the orbit is circular.
•Molniya orbit: A semi-synchronous variation of a Tundra orbit. For Earth this means an orbital period of just under 12 hours. Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet. An inclination of 63.4° is normally used to keep the perigee shift small.
•Supersynchronous orbit: Any orbit in which the orbital period of a satellite or celestial body is greater than the rotational period of the body which contains the barycenter of the orbit.
•Sun-synchronous orbit: An orbit which combines altitude and inclination in such a way that the satellite passes over any given point of the planets’s surface at the same local solar time. Such an orbit can place a satellite in constant sunlight and is useful for imaging, spy, and weather satellites.
•Frozen orbit: An orbit in which natural drifting due to the central body’s shape has been minimized by careful selection of the orbital parameters.
•Orbit of the Moon: The orbital characteristics of the Moon. Average altitude of 384,403 kilometres (238,857 mi), elliptical-inclined orbit.
•Beyond-low Earth orbit (BLEO) and beyond Earth orbit (BEO) are a broad class of orbits that are energetically farther out than low Earth orbit or require an insertion into a heliocentric orbit as part of a journey that may require multiple orbital insertions, respectively.
•Near-rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO): an orbit currently planned in cislunar space, as a Luna-centric orbit that will serve as a staging area for future missions. Planned orbit for the NASA Lunar Gateway in circa 2024, as a highly-elliptical seven-day near-rectilinear halo orbit around the Moon, which would bring the small space station within 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) of the lunar north pole at closest approach and as far away as 70,000 kilometers (43,000 mi) over the lunar south pole.
•Distant retrograde orbit (DRO): A stable circular retrograde orbit (usually referring to Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit). Stability means that satellites in DRO do not need to use station keeping propellant to stay in orbit. The lunar DRO is a high lunar orbit with a radius of approximately 61,500 km. This was proposed in 2017 as a possible Gateway orbit, outside EM L1 and L2.
•Decaying orbit: A decaying orbit is an orbit at a low altitude that decreases over time due atmospheric resistance. Used to dispose of dying artificial satellites or to aerobrake an interplanetary spacecraft.
•Earth-trailing orbit, a heliocentric orbit that is placed such that the satellite will initially follow Earth but at a somewhat slower orbital angular speed, such that it moves further behind year by year. This orbit was used on the Spitzer space telescope in order to drastically reduce the heat load from the warm Earth from a more typical geocentric orbit used for space telescopes.
•Graveyard orbit (or disposal, junk orbit) : An orbit that satellites are moved into at the end of their operation. For geostationary satellites a few hundred kilometers above geosynchronous orbit.
•Parking orbit, a temporary orbit.
•Transfer orbit, an orbit used during an orbital maneuver from one orbit to another.
•Repeat Orbit: An orbit where the ground track of the satellite repeats after a period of time.
⁃Horseshoe orbit: An orbit that appears to a ground observer to be orbiting a certain planet but is actually in co-orbit with the planet. See asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29.
⁃Lunar transfer orbit (LTO) (accomplished with trans-lunar injection, TLI)
⁃Mars transfer orbit (MTO) also known as trans-Mars injection (TMI) orbit
⁃Halo orbits and Lissajous orbits: These are orbits around a Lagrangian point. Lagrange points are shown in the adjacent diagram, and orbits near these points allow a spacecraft to stay in constant relative position with very little use of fuel. Orbits around the L1 point are used by spacecraft that want a constant view of the Sun, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Orbits around L2 are used by missions that always want both Earth and the Sun behind them. This enables a single shield to block radiation from both Earth and the Sun, allowing passive cooling of sensitive instruments. Examples include the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. L1, L2, and L3 are unstable orbits, meaning that small perturbations will cause the orbiting craft to drift out of the orbit without periodic corrections.
⁃P/2 orbit, a highly-stable 2:1 lunar resonant orbit, that was first used with the spacecraft TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) in 2018.
China’s Military Strategy
In 2015, Beijing directed the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to be able to win “informatized local wars” with an emphasis on “maritime military struggle.” Chinese military strategy documents also emphasize the growing importance of offensive air, long-distance mobility, and space and cyberspace operations. China expects that its future wars mostly will be fought outside its borders and will involve conflict in the maritime domain. China promulgated this through its most recent update to its “military strategic guidelines,” the top-level directives that Beijing uses to define concepts, assess threats, and set priorities for planning, force posture, and modernization. The PLA uses “informatized” warfare to describe the process of acquiring, transmitting, process-ing, and using information to conduct joint military operations across the domains of land, sea, air, space, cyberspace, and the electromagnetic spectrum during a conflict. PLA writings highlight the benefit of near-real-time shared awareness of the battlefield in enabling quick, unified effort to seize tactical opportunities.
Space and Counter-space Capabilities
Space Launch Capabilities
China is improving its space launch capabilities to ensure it has an independent, reliable means to access space and to compete in the international space launch market. Recent improvements reduce launch timelines, increase manufacturing efficiencies, and support human spaceflight and deep-space exploration missions.74 These improvements include new, modular SLVs that allow China to tailor an SLV to the specific configuration required for each customer. Using modular SLVs can lead to increases in manufacturing efficiency, launch vehicle reliability, and overall cost savings for launch campaigns.75China is also in the early stages of developing a super heavy-lift SLV similar to the U.S. Saturn-V or the newer Space Launch System to support proposed crewed lunar and Mars exploration missions.76China has developed a “quick response” SLV to increase its attractiveness as a commercial small satellite launch provider and to rapidly reconstitute LEO space capabilities, which could support military operations during a conflict or civilian response to disasters. Compared to medium- and heavy-lift SLVs, these quick response SLVs are capable of expedited launch campaigns because they are transportable via road or rail and can be stored launch-ready for longer periods. Currently, due to their limited size, quick response SLVs such as the KZ-1, LM-6, and LM-11 are only capable of launching relatively small payloads into LEO.
Chinese International SSA Cooperation
China leads the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization—a multilateral organization with rotating leadership whose members include emerging spacefaring nations such as Iran—that oversees a space surveillance project known as the Asia-Pacific Ground-Based Optical Space Object Observation System (APOSOS). As part of the project, China provided three 15 cm telescopes to Peru, Pakistan, and Iran that are capable of tracking objects in LEO and GEO. All tasking information and subsequent observation data collected is funneled through the Chinese Academy of Science’s National Astronomical Observatory of China. APOSOS has near full coverage of GEO and LEO. The organization is planning on improving optical system capabilities, coverage, and redundancy.
Russia views its space program as a longstanding example of its leadership on the international stage. Russia is a pioneer of space, dating back to its launch of the first satellite, Sputnik-1, and placing the first per-son into orbit around Earth, Yuri Gagarin. The Inter-national Space Station’s reliance on Russian launch vehicles to send astronauts to and from the station reinforces Moscow’s perspective that it remains a global leader in space. In the years following the end of the Cold War, a combination of budgetary constraints and technological setbacks caused a decay of Russian space capabilities including space-based remote sensing and satellite navigation.144Russia’s space program is robust but more narrowly focused and its budget more limited than China’s because of competing priorities with broader military modernization efforts.145 Nonetheless, over the last two decades, Moscow has been developing a suite of counterspace weapons capabilities, including EW to deny, degrade, and disrupt communications and navigation and DEW to deny the use of space-based imagery.146,147 Russia is probably also building a ground-based missile capable of destroy-ing satellites in orbit.148,149 Similar to China, Russia supports space arms control agreements to prevent weaponization of space, even as it views space as a warfighting domain.
Key Space Concepts
Communication Satellites: Communication satellites provide voice communications, television broad-casts, broadband internet, mobile services, and data transfer services for civil, military, and commercial users worldwide.
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR): ISR satellites support civil, commercial, and military purposes. Civil and commercial ISR satellites provide remote sensing data, which includes data on the Earth’s land, sea, and atmosphere. ISR satellites support a variety of military activities by providing signals intelligence, warning (including of ballistic missile activity), battle damage assessments, and military force disposition.
Missile Warning: Missile warning uses space-based and terrestrial sensors to notify countries of missile attacks and can enable defensive or offensive operations in response. Space-based sensors usually provide the first indication of a launch and ground-based radars provide follow-on information and confirm the attack.
Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT): Satellite navigation constellations provide PNT data that enable civilian, commercial, and military users to determine their precise location and local time. The European Union, Russia, and the United States’ satellite navigation constellations offer global coverage, and Japan and India operate regional systems. China operates both a regional and worldwide satellite navigation system.
Satellite Command and Control (C2) Architecture: The satellite C2 architecture is how users control and communicate with satellites. The control center uses the uplink to the spacecraft to deliver commands. The spacecraft downlink is how data is sent from the spacecraft to a ground station that has the necessary antennas, transmitters, and receivers to receive the data. Some satellite constellations use relay satellites, which enable communication between satellites outside the reception area of a ground station.17 Any component of the architecture is vulnerable to attack, ranging from physical vulnerabilities of a ground site to electronic warfare (EW) disrupting the connection between the space segment and the operator.
Space Launch: Space launch is the ability to deliver payloads into space. Space launch vehicles (SLV) can deploy, sustain, augment, or reconstitute satellite constellations in support of military, civilian, or commercial customers.
Key Counterspace Concepts
Cyberspace Threats:Cyberspace pervades all other warfighting domains, including space, and many space operations depend on cyberspace and vice versa.
19 With sophisticated knowledge of satellite C2 and data distribution networks, actors can use offensive cyberspace capabilities to enable a range of reversible to nonreversible effects against space systems, associated ground infrastructure, users, and the links connecting them.
Directed Energy Weapons (DEW): DEW use directed energy to disrupt, damage, or destroy enemy equipment and facilities. These weapons, which can have effects ranging from temporary to permanent, include lasers, high-power microwaves, and other types of radio frequency weapons. It can be difficult to attribute the origin of a DEW attack, depending on the type.
Electronic Warfare: EW includes using jamming and spoofing techniques to control the electromagnetic spectrum. EW can be challenging to attribute and distinguish from unintentional interference. Uplink jamming is directed toward the satellite and impairs services for all users in the satellite reception area. Downlink jamming has a localized effect because it is directed at ground users, such as a ground forces unit using satellite navigation to determine their location. Spoofing deceives the receiver by introducing a fake signal with erroneous information.
Kinetic Energy Threats: Kinetic energy threats, or antisatellite (ASAT) missiles, are designed to destroy satellites without placing the weapon system or any of its components into orbit. These systems typically consist of a fixed or mobile launch system, a missile, and a kinetic kill vehicle. These weapons could also be launched from aircraft. Once released, the kinetic kill vehicle uses an onboard seeker to intercept the target satellite. Ground-based ASAT missile attacks are more easily attributed than some other counterspace weapons, such as DEW, and their effects can create orbital debris.
Orbital Threats: Orbital or space-based systems are satellites that can deliver temporary or permanent effects against other spacecraft. These systems could include payloads such as kinetic kill vehicles, radio frequency jammers, lasers, chemical sprayers, high-power microwaves, and robotic mechanisms. Some of these systems, such as robotic technology for satellite servicing and repair and debris removal, have peaceful uses but can also be used for military purposes.
Space Situational Awareness (SSA): SSA is having current knowledge of a space object’s location and the ability to track and predict its future location; it also incorporates understanding of an actor’s intent for their spacecraft.22 SSA is necessary for space operations, including the ability to successfully target space objects and assess the effectiveness of an attack. Space object surveillance and identification sensors, which can include telescopes, radars, and space-based sensors, provide the data for SSA.
Space Situational Awareness. Russia’s space surveil-lance network, composed of a variety of telescopes, radars, and other sensors, is capable of searching for, tracking, and characterizing satellites in all Earth orbits.This network allows Russia to support missions including intelligence collection, counterspace targeting, spaceflight safety, satellite anomaly resolution, and space debris monitoring. Some of these sensors also perform a ballistic missile early warning function.
Electronic Warfare. The Russian military views EW as an essential tool for gaining and maintaining information superiority over its adversaries, allowing Russia to seize the operational initiative by disrupting adversary command, control, communications, and intelligence capabilities. Russia has fielded a wide range of ground-based EW systems to counter GPS, tactical communications, satellite communications, and radars. Mobile jammers include radar jammers and SATCOM jammers. Russia has aspirations to develop and field a full spectrum of EW capabilities to counter Western C4ISR and weapons guidance systems with new technology, data transfer, and capabilities for peacetime and wartime use by 2020.
Directed Energy Weapons.
Russia likely is pursuing laser weapons to disrupt, degrade, or dam-age satellites and their sensors.Prior to July 2018, Russia began delivering a laser weapon system to the Aerospace Forces that likely is intended for an ASAT mission. In public statements, President Vladimir Putin called it a “new type of strategic weapon,” and the Russian Defense Ministry asserted that it is capable of “fighting satellites in orbit.” Russia is also developing an air-borne ASAT laser weapon system to use against space-based missile defense sensors.
Cyberspace Threats. Since at least 2010, the Russian military has prioritized the development of forces and capabilities, including cyberspace operations, for what it terms “information confrontation,” which is a holistic concept for ensuring information superiority. The weaponization of information is a key aspect of this strategy and is employed in times of peace, crisis, and war. Russia considers the information sphere to be strategically decisive and has taken steps to modernize its military’s information attack and defense organizations and capabilities.
Orbital Threats. Russia continues to research and develop sophisticated on-orbit capabilities that could serve dual-use purposes. For example, inspection and servicing satellites can be capable of closely approaching satellites to inspect and potentially fix issues causing malfunctions; this same technology could also be used to approach another country’s satellite and conduct an attack that results in temporary or permanent damage. In 2017, Russia deployed what it described as an “inspector satellite capable of diagnosing the technical condition of a Russian satellite from the closest possible distance”; however, its behavior is inconsistent with on-orbit inspection activities or space situational awareness capabilities.
Ground-based Kinetic Energy Threats. Russia likely is developing a ground-based, mobile missile system capable of destroying space targets in LEO and ballistic missiles. This weapon system is likely to be operational within the next several years.
Iran recognizes the strategic value of space and counterspace capabilities and will attempt to deny an adversary use of space during a conflict. Tehran has publicly acknowledged it has developed capabilities to jam communications and GPS signals. Tehran may also contribute to the proliferation of jamming equipment. Since 2010, Iran Electronics Industries has marketed several GPS jammers on its website.227Tehran’s pursuit of a national space program sup-ports both civilian and military goals, including boosting national pride, economic development, and military modernization.228 The Iran Space Agency and Iran Space Research Center—which are subordinate to the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology—along with the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics oversee the country’s SLV and satellite development programs. Iran is also seeking to improve its space object track-ing capabilities and, in 2005, joined the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization. Tehran states it has developed sophisticated capabilities, including SLVs and communications and remote sensing satellites, but its SLVs are only able to launch microsatellites into LEO and have proven unreliable. Nonetheless, Iran has had a few successful launches of the two-stage Safir SLV since its first attempt in 2008. It has also revealed the larger two-stage Simorgh SLV, which could serve as a test bed for developing intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) technologies. Because of the inherent over-lap in technology between ICBMs and SLVs, Iran’s development of larger, more capable SLV boosters remains a concern for a future ICBM capability. Also, these advancements could be applied to develop-ing a basic ground-based ASAT missile, should Iran choose to do so in the future.
North Korea’s space program is administered by a state-run civilian agency, the National Aerospace Development Administration. North Korea’s space launch complex on the west coast, the Sohae Satellite Launching Station and associated space track-ing facilities in Pyongyang both supported satellite launch cycles in 2012 and 2016. An older space launch site on the east coast has not been used for a launch since 2009. Similar to Iran, North Korea will try to deny an adversary use of space during a conflict. North Korea has demonstrated non-kinetic counterspace capabilities, including GPS and satellite communication jamming. North Korea also has ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles that can reach orbit and could, in theory, be used to target satellites in a conflict. Although North Korea placed two satellites in orbit and has in the past articulated further space ambitions, their program enabled them to test technology used in ballistic missiles under the guise of peaceful use of space. These systems provided North Korea with valuable data applicable to the development of long-range, multistage ballistic missiles.
I need beta testers for Round 6 testing, before we can start. DM me
President Trump says he will sign an executive order to promote “patriotic education.” It will be called the 1776 commission.
David E Martin教授披露Moderna公司不僅在2019年3月28日申請了新冠病毒疫苗專利，並在申請中提到了他們擔心新冠病毒再度爆發或有意釋放。 Professor David E Martin disclosed that Moderna not only applied for a new coronavirus vaccine patent on March 28, 2019, but also mentioned in the application that they are worried about the new coronavirus outbreak or intentional release.
High demand — uncertainty amid pandemic causes firearm and ammo shortages
Judges Reset Bail for Rioters After Protesters Publish Judge’s Address, Petition for Reconsideration - Lancaster Blog
Reinaker reset bail for:
Taylor Enterline from $1 million to $50,000 unsecured
Dylan Davis from $1 million to $50,000 unsecured; is on house arrest
Joshua Dwayne Montague from $1 million to $100,000 cash or 10 %
Kathryn Patterson from $1 million to $50,0000 unsecured
Alexa Wise from $100,000 to $50,000 unsecured; is on house arrest
Roth revisited the bail amounts for:
– Barry Jones, from $1 million to $100,000 unsecured, he is on house arrest
– Jamal Shariff Newman from $1 million to $100,000 straight
– Talia Gessner from $1 million to $50,000 cash, if released, house arrest
– T-Jay Fry from $1 million to $25,000 straight
Um the hell?? US Marshalls???
5D chess game where pieces time travel
Lol and banned
If you are stupid enough to use my face mask as your icon that’s an automatic ban
It’s one of a kind for a reason