Influenza pandemics, solar activity cycles, and vitamin D

Influenza pandemics, solar activity cycles, and vitamin D

⤺ reposted by @miette057 from Turkey banks on military drones to extend power, regional clout

Spot on.

Going to start class

Things in Moscow between Iran are complicated at the moment. Negotiations are ongoing

Wizard of the Day - Johannes Gutenberg - #WIZARDOFTHEDAY

Gutenberg (c. 1398 – 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who invented the world’s first printing press. Gutenberg’s printing press revolutionised the creation of books and helped make them affordable, ushering in a new era of affordable books and literature.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz. He was the second of three children of patrician merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden and his second wife, Else Wyrich, the daughter of a shopkeeper, whose family had once been members of the German noble classes. According to some historians, Friele Gensfleisch was a member of the aristocracy and worked as a goldsmith for the bishop at Mainz in the Catholic ecclesiastical mint.

Few details of Gutenberg’s early life and education are known with any degree of certainty. It was common at the time for a person’s surname to be taken from the house or property where they lived rather than their father. As a result, a person’s legal surname as reflected in court documents could actually change over time as they moved about. It is known that as a young child and adult, Johannes lived in the Gutenberg house in Mainz.

He started his working life as a merchant but then moved into work as a blacksmith and goldsmith. In 1411, an uprising by craftsmen against aristocrats in Mainz forced more than a hundred families like Gutenberg’s to leave. It is believed that Gutenberg moved with his family to Eltville am Rhein (Altavilla), Germany, where they lived on an estate inherited by his mother. Gutenberg may have studied goldsmithing at the University of Erfurt, where records show the enrollment of a student named Johannes de Altavilla in 1418, Altavilla being the Latin form of Eltville am Rhein, Gutenberg’s home at the time. Wherever he received his formal education, Gutenberg learned to read and write in both German and Latin, the language of scholars and churchmen.

For the next 15 years, Gutenberg’s life remained a mystery, until a letter written by him in March 1434 indicated that he was living with his mother’s relatives in Strasbourg, Germany, perhaps working as a goldsmith for the town’s militia. While Gutenberg was never known to have married or fathered children, court records from 1436 and 1437 indicate that he may have broken a promise to marry a Strasbourg woman named Ennelin. No more is known of the relationship.

At one point, Gutenberg became heavily indebted due to a failed investment in holy mirrors. He was making polished metal mirrors for sale to pilgrims coming to a festival in the German town of Aachen to view its collection of relics from Charlemagne. The mirrors were believed to capture the otherwise invisible “holy light” given off by religious relics. When the festival was delayed for over a year by floods, the money already spent to make the mirrors could not be repaid. To satisfy the investors, Gutenberg is believed to have promised to tell them a “secret” that would make them rich, promising his creditors that they could have a share in the new printing press that he was working on. It is also said the idea for the printing press, came like a flash of light, though this may have been an embellished story – added at a later day.

By the early 1400s, European metalsmiths had mastered woodblock printing and engraving. One of those metalsmiths was Gutenberg, who began experimenting with printing during his time in Strasbourg. At the same time, metalsmiths in France, Belgium, Holland, and Italy were also experimenting with printing presses.

Gutenberg is believed to have revealed his printing press secret in a book oddly titled “Aventur und Kunst” (Enterprise and Art). It is not known whether he had actually attempted or succeeded in printing from movable type at the time. By 1448, Gutenberg had moved back to Mainz, where with the help of a loan from his brother-in-law Arnold Gelthus, he began assembling a working printing press. With financial backing from a wealthy moneylender Johann Fust, Gutenberg was able to bring his ideas to fruition. His first working printing press was revealed in around 1450 in Strasbourg.

By then, Gutenberg’s first press was in operation. The genius of Gutenberg’s printing press is that it incorporated various technologies from different fields into a practical and affordable way of printing books. The key element of the printing press was the use of moveable type printing – adjustable wooden characters (later metal), the use of an oil-based ink and a wooden printing press derived from the screw presses used in agriculture. Gutenberg made metal molds of each letter or symbol into which he could pour molten metal, such as copper or lead. The resulting metal “slug” letters were more consistent and durable than wooden blocks and produced more easily readable print. Great quantities of each molded metal letter could be produced faster than carved wood letters. The printer could arrange and rearrange the individual metal letter slugs as often as needed to print several different pages using the same letters.

By 1452, Gutenberg entered into a business partnership with Fust in order to continue funding his printing experiments. Gutenberg continued to refine his printing process. With the new invention, 42 lines could be printed at once, dramatically reducing the labour and cost of creating books (which previously had been handwritten manuscripts).

The most influential book published by Gutenberg was the Gutenberg Bible in 1455. Consisting of three volumes of text in Latin, the Gutenberg Bible featured 42 lines of type per page with color illustrations.

The Gutenberg Bible is acclaimed for its high quality of design and quality. The font was rather large, but this also made the text extremely easy to read. This ease of readability proved especially popular among the church clergy. In a letter written in March 1455, the future Pope Pius II recommended Gutenberg’s Bibles to Cardinal Carvajal, stating, “The script was very neat and legible, not at all difficult to follow—your grace would be able to read it without effort, and indeed without glasses.”

Gutenberg didn’t get to enjoy his innovation for long. In 1456, his financial backer and partner Johann Fust accused Gutenberg of misusing the money he had loaned him in 1450 and demanded repayment. At 6% interest, the 1,600 guilders Gutenberg had borrowed now amounted to 2,026 guilders. When Gutenberg refused or was unable to repay the loan, Fust sued him in the archbishop’s court. When the court ruled against Gutenberg, Fust was allowed to seize the printing press as collateral. The bulk of Gutenberg’s presses and type pieces went to his employee and Fust’s future son-in-law, Peter Schöffer. Fust continued printing the Gutenberg 42-line Bibles, eventually publishing about 200 copies, of which only 22 exist today. His printing presses were later used to mass produce Bibles – helping to spread the most influential book of the era.

In January 1465, Adolf von Nassau-Wiesbaden, the archbishop of Mainz, recognized Gutenberg’s achievements by granting him the title of Hofmann, a gentleman of the court. The honor provided Gutenberg an ongoing monetary stipend and fine clothing, as well as grain and wine tax-free.

Gutenberg died in 1468. With little notice or acknowledgment of his contributions, he was buried in the cemetery of the Franciscan church at Mainz. When both the church and cemetery were destroyed in World War II, Gutenberg’s grave was lost.

Many statues of Gutenberg can be found in Germany, including the famed 1837 statue by Dutch sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen at Gutenbergplatz in Mainz. In addition, Mainz is home to Johannes Gutenberg University and the Gutenberg Museum on the history of early printing. An “official birthday” of June 24, 1400, was chosen at the time of the 500th Anniversary Gutenberg Festival held in Mainz in 1900, but the date is purely symbolic.

Movable type technology was influential in the development of the Renaissance, The Reformation (Martin Luther was one of the early pioneers of mass producing pamphlets - over 300,000 were produced during his lifetime), and The Age of Scientific Enlightenment. The new printing press helped provide an economical way to share ideas and knowledge in an affordable way for ordinary people. The largely unrestricted spread of information sharply increased literacy throughout Europe, breaking the virtual monopoly the learned elite and religious clergy had held over education and learning for centuries. Bolstered by a new level of cultural self-awareness brought on by its increasing literacy, people of the emerging European middle class began using their own more easily understood vernacular languages rather than Latin as their commonly spoken and written language.

Gutenberg’s movable metal type printing technology revolutionized book-making in Europe and soon spread throughout the developed world. By the early 19th century, Gutenberg’s hand-operated printing presses had largely been replaced by steam-powered rotary presses, allowing for all but specialty or limited-run printing to be done quickly and economically on an industrial scale.

Today, Gutenberg’s name and accomplishments are commemorated by Project Gutenberg, the oldest digital library containing over 60,000 free eBooks. In 1952, the United States Postal Service issued a five hundredth anniversary stamp commemorating Gutenberg’s invention of the movable-type printing press.



California: ‘Like Armageddon’: Rotting food, dead animals and chaos at postal facilities amid cutbacks.

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“through hardships to the stars”

Congratulations to M on passing HAM Radio Certified Tech Exam :partying_face:

Congratulations to M on passing HAM Radio Certified Tech Exam :partying_face:

Many thanks

Keep going many eyes :eyes: are upon us

The Sky Is Not The Limit

per aspera ad astra

In a different world, it coulda been just “hey baby wanna 3D print and chill” but no, gotta make a fkn weapon

I wonder why :drop_of_blood: :infinity:

The Sun Article I warned you about yesterday with the Doomsday Doctrine is having ripple effects in the UK

That’s literally my 20s in 4 panels

I legit laughed out. It’s relatable

Once you realize anything and everything with gunpowder or bullets is outdated

You kinda start getting into lasers hardcore

:comet:The fall of unknown celestial body was recorded on the night of August 21-22 in Tokyo and other prefectures of Kanto area
A bright glowing ball crossed the sky and went out before reaching the ground

:comet:В ночь с 21 на 22 августа в Токио и других префектурах района Канто было зафиксировано падение неизвестного небесного тела
Яркий светящийся шар пересек небосклон и погас, не долетев до земли

:ru::iran: Iranian Defense Minister General Amir Khatami attends #Army_2020 Russian Forum
Iranian delegation examined the air defense/missile defense systems of the S-400 and Pantsir-S1 air defense systems of most interest to Tehran
:cn::pakistan: In China, the launch of the head frigate of 054R project for the Pakistani Navy took place
:cn::thailand: Chinese tank factory First Machinery Group (plant No. 617) in Inner Mongolia shipped VT-4 tanks and VN1 armored personnel carriers for Thailand

:ru::iran: Министр обороны Ирана генерал Амир Хатами посетил российский форум #Армия2020
Иранская делегация осмотрела наиболее интересующие Тегеран средства ПВО/ПРО ЗРК С-400 и ЗРПК "Панцирь-С1
:cn::pakistan: В Китае состоялся спуск на воду головного фрегата проекта 054Р для ВМС Пакистана
:cn::thailand: На китайском танковом заводе First Machinery Group (завод № 617) во Внутренней Монголии прошла отгрузка танков VT-4 и бронетранспортеров VN1 для Таиланда

:ru::tr: Russia signed a contract with Turkey for the second set of S-400
“The contract for supply of the second set of S-400s to Turkey has already been signed, financial conditions for execution of the contract are being discussed,” said the head of Rosoboronexport, Alexander Mikheev, at the #Army_2020 forum.

:ru::tr: Россия заключила контракт с Турцией на второй комплект С-400
“Контракт на поставку второго комплекта С-400 в Турцию уже подписан, идет обсуждение финансовых условии исполнения контракта”, сообщил глава “Рособоронэкспорта” Александр Михеев на форуме “#Армия_2020”.